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Vol. 33 December, 1942 No. 4 

EAST CAROLINA TEACHERS COLLEGE 
BULLETIN 



Recent Studies By Faculty and 
Advanced Students 



Greenville, north Carolina 



Published four times a year— March. May. August, and December. 

Entered as second-class matter March 16. 19:{6 at the Post Office 

at Greenville, N. C, under act of Concress August 24. 1912. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
Foreword 3 

Dissertations 

Recent Investigations in the Field of 

Business Education. Abstracts E. R. Browning 5 

The New Bright Tobacco Belt of 

Carolina. Abstract Parnell W. Picklesimer 13 

The Education of Negro Home Eco- 
nomics Teachers in North Carolina. 
A study not yet completed Katharine Holtzclaw 18 

Other Studies by the Faculty _ 19 

The Southern Planter and the Amer- 
ican Revolution R. L. Hilldrup 19 

A New Light on Sir Philip 

Sidney Denver Ewing Baughan 22 

Songs That Give Contrast to the 

Song Recital Denton Rossell 25 

Prognostic Value of High School 

Grades Howard J. McGinnis 27 

A Study of Student Attendance and 

Graduation Howard J. McGinnis 29 

Studies by Students __ 34 

A Study of Transcripts of High 
School Records Submitted to East 
Carolina Teachers College Tommie Lou Corbett 34 

The Efforts of North Carolina to 
Obtain Amendments to the Fed- 
eral Constitution from August 
1787, to June, 1790. By Annie 
Andrews Sellers. Thesis reported 
by R. L. Hilldrup 37 

Behind Red Velvet: A Handbook of 
Dramatics for Teachers of High 
School English. By Clifton J. Brit- 
ton. Thesis reported by Lucile Turner 38 

North Carolina Writers of Literary 
Prose from 1900 to 1940. Biogra- 
phies and Bibliographies. By 
Katherine Wilkins Hinson. Thesis 
reported by Lucile Turner 40 

Titles of Theses and Dissertations Written by 

Members of the Faculty 42 



FOREWORD 

A number of the studies that have been completed 
recently or that are now being carried on by members of 
the staff and by advanced students at East Carolina 
Teachers College are presented in this bulletin. 

It is to be expected that a live college faculty will be 
doing a reasonable amount of experimentation, investi- 
gation, and research to the end that the method of in- 
struction may become more effective, the content richer, 
and the student better trained to find, organize, and use 
facts. And it is not surprising, when one pauses to 
examine "samplings" of the work being done, to find that 
some of the studies are on campus problems; some on 
matters of social, historical, economic, and literary im- 
portance in the State, and some not localized but signifi- 
cant as contributions to knowledge in particular fields. 
Transcripts, the New Bright Tobacco Belt, and Sir Philip 
Sidney are not incongruous as symbols of the independent 
study that is going on in a teachers college. 



DISSERTATIONS 

During the past summer, two members of the faculty 
here received the doctorate; a third member has com- 
pleted all the required work except the dissertation and 
has made considerable progress on that, Mr. Browning 
took the degree of Doctor of Education at the Colorado 
State College of Education, and Mr. Picklesimer, the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy at George Peabody Col- 
lege for Teachers. Miss Holtzclaw is doing her work for 
the doctorate at New York University. The three give 
here reports on their studies. 

RECENT INVESTIGATIONS IN THE FIELD OF 
BUSINESS EDUCATION 

E. R. Browning 

This report consists of three brief summaries of studies 
that were submitted in partial fulfillment of the require- 
ments for the degree of Doctor of Education at Colorado 
State College of Education. The primary purpose of this 
report is to present, in statistical form, some of the most 
significant facts revealed by the investigations. 

A COMMERCIAL OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY OF CITIES IN 
EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA 
THE PROBLEM 

The purpose of the study was to make an investigation 
of commercial employees in eastern North Carolina, the 
findings of which would be a basis for improvements in 
the business curriculum of East Carolina Teachers 
College. 

PROCEDURE 

A questionnaire was distributed to business firms in 
twenty-two counties in eastern North Carolina. The final 
report was made, however, on the basis of information 
received from the employers; statistical data obtained 
from the United States Census Report for 1930 ; a review 
of materials found in current literature in the field of 
business education ; and a study of similar surveys made 
elsewhere. 



6 Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Studentb 

FINDINGS 

More commercial workers, 36.3 per cent, are found in 
selling occupations in eastern North Carolina than are 
found in any other type of work. These people were 
usually classified as "clerks" in stores, salesmen, and 
saleswomen. A majority, 63.6 per cent, of them did not 
go beyond high school. There are more males than 
females doing this type of work. There is no evidence 
that employers of sales people are opposed to employing 
young people under twenty-one years of age. Employers 
frequently said, however, that good salesmen are hard to 
find. Out of every twenty commercial employees in 
eastern Carolina, eight are clerks. 

The next largest group of commercial employees in 
eastern Carolina is the accounting group. These people 
were usually classified as accountants, clerks other than 
"clerks" in stores, auditors, bookkeepers, and cashiers. 
They accounted for 24.7 per cent of all of the workers 
reported. Members of the accounting group were usually 
graduates of high schools and business schools and were 
predominantly, 74.2 per cent, of the male sex. 

Commercial workers in executive and managerial posi- 
tions made up 20.4 per cent of the total employees. A 
large number, 40 per cent, of these workers are college 
graduates and a very large majority of them, 92.8 per 
cent, are men. 

Only 18.6 per cent of all the commercial workers are 
employed as machine operators and private secretaries. 
Approximately 50 per cent of the private secretaries were 
business school graduates. 

It is an interesting fact that 93 per cent of the com- 
mercial workers of eastern North Carolina are high 
school graduates and over 23 per cent of them are college 
graduates. A high school education was the last formal 
school work of over 50 per cent of the commercial em- 
ployees. 

Underwood, Royal, and Remington typewriters are 
widely used by business employers. The Burroughs add- 
ing machine and the National cash register are found in 



Recent Studies by Fac l'i.ty and Advanced Sti dents 7 

a large majority of the stores and offices of eastern 
Carolina. Monroe and Burroughs calculating machines, 
Mimeograph duplicating equipment, Burroughs book- 
keeping machines, and Ediphone dictating equipment are 
very popular with the employers of this section. The 
part that office machines play in the daily office routine 
is indicated by the fact that there is an average of six 
office machines in each office, including two typewriters 
and one adding machine. 

Employers checked the school subjects related to the 
teaching of business English as being the ones in which 
they found their employees most deficient. Penmanship, 
salesmanship, and arithmetic ranked next, in the order 
stated, as to deficiency on the part of commercial em- 
ployees. 

There was a tremendous spread in the number of 
personal traits which employers listed as being desirable. 
Neatness, tact, courtesy, personality, honesty, indus- 
triousness, sales ability, accuracy, and punctuality were 
the traits most often mentioned by the business men. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

The findings of this survey indicate a definite need for 
improving the business curricula of eastern Carolina 
schools. The major recommendations which can be im- 
plied from the facts found in this investigation are these : 

1. That more emphasis be placed on the subject 
matter that pertains to the selling occupations. 

2. That the curricula of the schools make more definite 
provisions for the elimination of individual weaknesses in 
English, penmanship, and arithmetic. 

3. That the content of courses in bookkeeping be made 
rich in materials that will help the student in particular 
office situations. 

4. That the equipment of the business classroom be 
made as similar to that of business offices of the territory 
as possible. 



8 Recent Studies ky Faculty axd Advanced Students 

THE Status of the Objectives and content of business 
LAW IN THE Secondary schools 

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the 
present status of objectives and content of courses in 
business law in the secondary schools. 

SOURCES OF DATA 

The primary sources of information concerning the 
status of objectives and content of business law were as 
follows : 

1. General literature in the field of the social sciences 
and specific literature in the field of business law. 

2. Courses of study of twenty-two city and state 
school systems. 

3. Twenty commonly used business law textbooks in 
high schools, business schools, and colleges of the United 
States. 

FINDINGS 

1. Eighteen different objectives of the course in 
business law were mentioned by the various writers. 

2. The only objective on which there was substantial 
agreement was that the course should give the student a 
knowledge of the principles of law that pertain to business 
transactions. 

3. Desirable attitudes toward society were mentioned 
by 50 per cent of the writers. 

4. The development of respect and reverence for law 
and the development of the powers of logical reasoning 
were listed as important objectives by 30 per cent of the 
writers. 

5. Writers of business law textbooks are usually well 
qualified to write on the subject. A vast majority of 
these writers are educators, representing well known 
universities, colleges, and high schools. Of the thirty- 
two authors contributing to the books used in this study, 
50 per cent were members of the bar. 



Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 9 

6. There is a wide variety of practice in the use of 
illustrated materials in business law textbooks. A range 
from to 73 illustrations was found. An average of 31 
illustrations was found in -early and recent business law 
textbooks. Drafts, notes, leases, deeds, and pictures are 
the most common types of illustrations found in the 
textbooks. 

7. Business law content materials are highly tradi- 
tional in their nature. A strikingly small degree of 
change has taken place in the materials discussed 
throughout the entire history of the course. 

8. The following list of subjects and average per cent 
of pages devoted to each is representative of the business 
law course as it has been taught and as it is now being 
taught : 

Average Per 
Subject Cent of Pages 

Contracts 23.0 

Negotiable Instruments 13.9 

Business Organizations , 13.2 

Sales of Personal Property 10.5 

Real Property - 8.7 

Agency J 6.3 

Law and Its Administration _. 5.3 

Insurance 4.8 

Bailments — — 4.5 

Torts and Business Crimes 3.5 

Common Carriers . 2.7 

Surety and Guaranty 2.0 

Employer and Employee 1.6 



Total 100.0 

THE WORK OF LEGAL AID CLINICS IN THE UNITED STATES AND 
ITS IMPLICATIONS TO THE BUSINESS EDUCATION CURRICULUM 

THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 

The purposes of this study were to obtain data con- 
cerning the legal difficulties experienced by legal aid 
clients and to point out the implications of the difliculties 
to the business law course. 



10 Rk( EXT Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 

SOURCES OF DATA 

The first phase of this investigation dealt with the 
survey of literature in the field of legal aid. The second 
phase was concerned with the problem of obtaining data 
relative to the legal aid work of clinics throughout the 
United States. The third phase of the investigation in- 
volved the tabulation and interpretation of data received 
from fifty-two legal aid societies concerning the nature 
of 187,299 legal aid cases. In addition to the reports, 
clinics were visited in North Carolina, West Virginia, and 
Colorado. 

FINDINGS 

1. Eighty-three types of legal difficulties were listed 
in fifty-two legal aid reports for 1940. 

2. The outstanding types of legal difficulties were 
small money claims, disputes between landlords and 
tenants, and wage disputes. 

3. Other claims ranking high in frequency of occur- 
rence were installment contracts, insurance, wage assign- 
ment and garnishee, personal injury, and workmen's 
compensation claims. 

4. A comparison of the legal difficulties of legal aid 
clients with the content of business law courses revealed 
that the common difficulties of legal aid clients were given 
very slight attention in printed business law materials. 
The findings of the previous analysis of courses of study 
and business law textbooks are compared here with the 
findings of this investigation : 

TEXTBOOKS LEGAL AID CASES 

Per Cent of Pages Subject Per Cent of Cases 

23.0. Contracts 20.3 

0.0 Domestic Relations : 21.3 

0.0 Unclassified 19.3 

19.2 ...Property 18.9 

13.9 -- Negotiable Instruments 0.0 

13.2 Business Organizations 0.0 

6.3 - Agency ..- 0.0 

5.3 Law and Its Administration 0.0 

4.8 Insurance 1.6 



Rece.vt Studies by Facilty a.\d Advanced Stldems 11 

4.5 -Bailments 0.0 

3.5- -Torts 5.1 

2.7 - Common Carriers 0.0 

2.0 - - Surety and Guaranty 0.0 

1.6 Employee and Employer : 7.7 

0.0 -Criminal _ 4.2 

0.0 Relief _ 1.6 



100.0 - Totals 100.0 

CONCLUSIONS 

In terms of the conclusions of the previous analysis of 
business law materials and the findings of this study, the 
following conclusions are presented : 

1. The business law course has followed a fairly set 
pattern of content throughout the history of the course. 
There is no evidence that business law materials have 
been changed fundamentally in recent years. 

2. There is evidence, however, that business law text- 
books are usually written by qualified scholars. Most of 
the writers are college teachers and more than half of 
them are members of the bar. 

3. Business law textbooks contain a large number of 
legal definitions and an academic treatment of economic 
as well as legal aspects of certain problems. The subject 
matter is often presented from the point of view of the 
lawyer or business man. The rights and duties of laymen 
are seldom discussed in a clear-cut manner. 

4. A comparison of the experiences of legal aid clients 
with the content of business law textbooks indicates that 
certain significant legal problems are practically ignored 
in printed business law materials. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. The business law curriculum should provide oppor- 
tunities for the study of the legal difficulties of the people 
of each school community. 

2. The experiences of legal aid clients show that people 
need to know more about local and state regulations. 



12 Rkcent Studies by Faculty a>o Advanced Students 

State laws and city ordinances relating to certain types of 
contracts, such as insurance, should be given more at- 
tention. 

3. The traditional outline of business law materials 
should be reorganized. There is no evidence that would 
justify the prominence given the following subjects in 
business law textbooks: business organizations, agency, 
bailment, common carriers, guaranty and surety, and the 
transfer of land. If the economic and technical aspects 
of these subjects were eliminated, the essential legal 
aspects could be included in a general study of contracts 
common to the business community. 

4. A fundamental revision of business law materials 
is needed in respect to the following types of contracts : 

hiformal contracts are given very little attention in 
business law materials. These unwritten, and sometimes 
casually made, agreements appear to be significant to a 
large segment of the population. A treatment of the 
rights and duties of the parties to such contracts would 
improve the business law course. 

The wage contract is a frequent source of difficulty 
with legal aid clients. Business law materials contain 
only a casual treatment of this subject. Business law 
materials should contain a more detailed treatment of 
modern wage and hour legislation. 

Landlord and tenant relations should be given more 
careful attention. There is evidence that tenants are 
uninformed concerning the most important phases of their 
lease agreements. Business law materials contain an ex- 
tended discussion of the technicalities involved in the 
transfer of land but very little discussion of the property 
rights of the people who do not hold title to land. 

Installment contracts are very common to legal aid 
clients. This topic is practically ignored in most printed 
materials dealing with business law. Local business firms 
could provide interesting and valuable materials that 
would give the student an understanding of the im- 
portance of the installment contract in the modern 
business world. 



Recent Studies by FAtri.TY and Advanced Students 13 

Insurance contracts are presented in an academic and 
conventional manner in business law textbooks. Greater 
attention should be given the rights of policy holders. A 
more detailed treatment should be given state insurance 
laws and the findings of current federal investigation of 
current insurance practices. 

THE NEW BRIGHT TOBACCO BELT OF NORTH 
CAROLINA 

a study in human geography 

ParnelL Wilson Picklesimer 

ABSTRACT 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

This is a study of the human geography of the New 
Bright Tobacco Belt of North Carolina. The region lies 
almost wholly within the Inner Coastal Plain of the state, 
and embraces a territory of nearly 5,000 square miles. 
The area has been set apart as a regional unit largely on 
the basis of its present land use. The purposes of this 
study are to determine how man has occupied and used 
the land, to account for the changes that have taken place 
in the use of its resources, and to suggest problems which 
are likely to await solution in the near future. 

DATA AND METHODOLOGY 

This report is based on field obsei'vation of conditions 
in the region during a residence of the past fifteen years. 
Within the last two years the writer has had many per- 
sonal interviews with leading farmers, county agents, 
editors, county and city officials, and executives of various 
transportation and business enterprises. Available data 
bearing on the problem in the following libraries of the 
state have been checked for information: State Library, 
Raleigh; Greater University of North Carolina, Chapel 
Hill and Raleigh; and East Carolina Teachers College, 
Greenville. Statistical materials have been accumulated 
largely from the various bureaus and departments of the 
city, county, state, and federal governments. In addition 



14 Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 

to information obtained from such sources, county his- 
tories, newspaper files, and other published materials have 
been consulted. Wherever possible, material obtained 
through interviews has been carefully checked through 
field observation to permit evaluation. 

Wherever greater elaboration or clarity seemed desir- 
able or necessary, maps, pictures, graphs, and tables have 
been added. Suggestions as to probable future develop- 
ments are based on conclusions reached during the course 
of the investigation. 

SUMMARY 

Several facts and relationships of interest to the human 
geographer are revealed. The New Bright Tobacco Belt, 
as this region is called, has been revolutionized within the 
span of about three hundred years. From a land of native 
vegetation and wild life has evolved a land of forest 
industries, followed by a subsistence agriculture and a 
livestock industry of the forest and, finally, an agriculture 
devoted largely to the production of cash crops. From 
a study of the trends in agricultural commodities, it is 
revealed that subsistence agriculture prevailed until about 
the time of the invention of the cotton gin in 1793, after 
which time an increasing amount of attention was given 
to cotton and tobacco. The production of tobacco on a 
commercial scale, however, did not make much progress 
until after about 1890. It was not until after the opening 
of the present century that there was a slight tendency 
on the part of farmers to diversify their productions. 
Each culture set its own peculiar stamp upon the region. 

The Indians occupied the area until about 1722, but 
they utilized little of its resources. The early white 
settlers made their homes along the streams, and ex- 
panded gradually to the interstream sections. During 
the colonial period the settlers earned a livelihood chiefly 
through the cultivation of the soil, the raising of livestock, 
and the development of a naval stores industry. Farming 
was first conducted on the terraces along the rivers, and 
the productions consisted largely of subsistence crops. 
The livestock industry, although an industry of the forest. 



Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 15 

was proportionately more important than at any other 
time in the history of the region. While there were many 
oaks, the region was mainly an area of pine forests, from 
which naval stores were secured and exported. 

The New Bright Tobacco Belt is a low plain with a 
slight tilt toward the southeast. Approximately three- 
fourths of the area is mildly undulating upland which 
contains the cultivable land, and the remainder is largely 
made up of boglands, unsuited to agriculture but some- 
times used for grazing. On the whole, the region does 
not have a trim appearance. Those finer adjustments 
found in more highly developed farm areas have not been 
made here. 

Agricultural activities are at present dominant in the 
region and are related to, and in part limited by, such 
factors of the natural environment as topography, 
climate, soil fertility, native vegetation, and transporta- 
tion facilities. 

There are several factors which favor agricultural 
production. The surface of the land is fairly smooth and 
largely devoid of stones. The climatic conditions are such' 
as to favor a variety of lower middle-latitude crops. The 
dominant and most normal soil of the region is the group 
known as the Norfolk sandy loams and these are moder- 
ately well drained and easily tilled. A survey of the native 
vegetation also indicates that a considerable variety of 
crops can be grown. 

On the other hand, there exist certain conditions which 
are not favorable to agricultural production. Approxi- 
mately one-fourth of the region is made up of poorly 
drained boglands, which are unsuited to agriculture. Most 
of the land, including the so-called uplands, is so flat and 
of such low elevation, that artificial drainage becomes a 
farm necessity. The soils are badly leached, and are not 
what one would call first-rate soils. The area apparently 
remains an important agricultural section largely because 
of the continued use of commercial fertilizers. Further- 
more, a few troublesome weeds are found to harass the 
farmer, such as field garlic, bitterweed, poison ivy, cockle- 



16 Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 

bur, field bindweed, nut grass, and Johnson grass, which 
reduce crop yields and endanger farm values. 

Natural environmental factors largely determined the 
methods and routes of travel and transportation. The 
area is interlaced with streams and swamps and, because 
it was at first easier to travel by water than by land, the 
early settlers occupied the most favored locations on or 
near the navigable streams. As interest grew in cotton 
and tobacco, people tended to shift from the riverine to 
the interstream sections, where conditions were more 
favorable for these crops. Roads came slowly into exis- 
tence, and it was not until 1929 that an adequate system 
of hard-surfaced highways was provided. Although 
there is at present a fairly good railway pattern, the 
circulation within the area depends largely on roads. 

Unimproved land comprises a large percentage of the 
area of every county in the Belt, and constitutes about 
66.1 per cent of the total land surface. The unimproved 
land is largely in timber, much of which is now inferior 
in kind and quality, and represents (1) lands too wet to 
attempt clearing and draining for agricultural use; (2) 
abandoned fields which have reverted to forest or are in 
the process of so doing; and (3) a small amount of land 
which could be cleared and drained with profit. It is 
observed that the first two classes comprise practically 
all the unimproved land. The area embraced in class one 
is remaining constant, but in class two it is increasing. 
Some of class three lands are being cleared. In recent 
years there has been an increase in the acreage of unim- 
proved land, which is probably the result of the greater 
emphasis being placed upon small-acreage cash crops, and 
of the reluctance of farmers to diversify their productions. 

The forest industries are the region's second most im- 
portant industry. There are at present 174 forest- 
industry plants, and these are distributed throughout all 
counties. The industry is dominated by small portable 
sawmills, operating largely in second growth timber, and 
averaging a change in location about four times a year. 
Important mill products are lumber, cross ties, and 
veneers. 



Recext Studies by Faculty and Advanced Stldents 17 

The location and diversity of markets for forest prod- 
ucts favor production. The large consuming centers of 
the Northeast are within truck haul of this region. The 
furniture industry of the nearby Piedmont area of the 
state provides a market for hardwood lumber and veneers. 
There is also a demand for hogsheads, boxes, crates, and 
baskets in which to market tobacco and vegetables. 

During the past forty years the following changes have 
occurred in rural conditions: (1) there has been an in- 
crease in the number of farms; (2) there has been a 
marked decrease in the size of farms ; (3) there has been 
a slight decrease in the amount of improved land in 
farms ; and (4) farm land has increased greatly in value, 
although it is now on the decline. The increase in the 
number of farms was caused largely by the subdivision 
of previously existing farms with an accompanying reduc- 
tion in the size of individual farms. The kinds of cash 
crops grown do not call for an expansion of the existing 
cropped area. Land values have increased 460.3 per cent 
since 1900, but the depression years of the thirties re- 
duced these values to new low levels from which they have 
not recovered. 

The leading crop productions in the Belt are tobacco, 
cotton, corn, peanuts, soy beans, hay, and vegetable truck 
crops. More time and attention are given to the cash 
crops than to subsistence crops. The region is found to 
be well adapted to the growing of tobacco, and from this 
one crop the farmers receive most of their cash income. 
The livestock industry makes a poor showing in the area, 
but is somewhat on the increase. A diversified agricul- 
tural program is slowly developing. 

At present nearly 32 per cent of the total population 
lives in agglomerated communities. These communities 
function chiefly as trade centers, markets for farm 
products, and seats of government. Their growth in 
population, like that of the rural areas, has been greatest 
during the past four decades. An awkward feature of the 
tobacco marketing towns is found in the great rush of 
business during the fall, followed by the lean months of 
winter, spring, and summer. 



18 Recent Studies bt Faculty and Advanced Students 

The present utilization of the land reflects to a large 
extent the use for which the land is suited. It would 
appear, however, that greater emphasis should be placed 
upon the production of food and feed crops, the develop- 
ment of which is slow because of inadequate markets and 
the lack of a system of standards for grading many farm 
products. The development of such a farm program is 
also held in check by the greater demand for bright 
tobacco. Another problem which seems ripe for solution 
pertains to the forested areas. Forest land is taxed at the 
same acreage rate as cultivated land, which practice is 
discouraging to forest conservationists and often compels 
the cutting of timber before it reaches the proper stage 
of merchantability. There is also a need for better pro- 
tection of the forests against fire than exists at the 
present time. 

THE EDUCATION OF NEGRO HOME ECONOMICS 
TEACHERS IN NORTH CAROLINA 

Katharine Holtzclaw 

The purpose of this investigation is to determine the 
adequacy of the present pre-service and in-service train- 
ing of the Negro teacher of home economics in North 
Carolina, to meet the social and economic home-making 
needs of the Negro families in the state. 

Considerable work in collecting data has been done, but 
a part of the research requires travel, and at the present 
time war conditions make this impossible. 



OTHER STUDIES BY THE FACULTY 

This group of studies, some completed and others not, 
shows considerable range — history, critical biography, 
vocal music, and college administration; yet if all the 
studies on which staff members are working as they find 
time were reported, the range would probably be much 
greater. 

One significant completed study, not included, is an 
evaluation of the grades teachers here have given during 
the past five years. It was at the request of the faculty 
that the Director of the Department of Mathematics made 
this investigation which should tend to make more 
accurate and reliable the grades given to students. 

THE SOUTHERN PLANTER AND THE AMERICAN 
REVOLUTION 

R. L. HiLLDRUP 

In the First Section of this study an attempt is being 
made to present more clearly the reasons that aristocratic 
planters of the South joined "mechanics" of the North, 
yeomen of the Piedmont, and frontiersmen of the West 
in a democratic movement which jeopardized their own 
social position and led to a disruption of the British Em- 
pire. Attention is being centered chiefly on the effects 
of the following upon the planters' attitude toward the 
British Empire during the late Colonial Period: 

1. Indebtedness of southern planters to British im- 
porters of the agricultural products of the American 
colonies, and subsequent signs of strained relations 
between these creditors and debtors in private and 
business correspondence, and in the agrarian and 
mercantilistic literature of that period. 

2. Political contests of indebted planters and creditor 
merchants in colonial legislatures and in parliament 
over the establishment of land banks, loan offices, 
and the issuance of cheap money. The indebted 
planters wanted these things; the creditor mer- 



20 Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 

chants opposed them. The merchants had more 
influence than the planters with parhament, which 
intervened to prevent the colonial legislatures from 
carrying out the financial schemes of the planters. 

3. Contests over colonial stay laws and other devices 
resorted by the planters to prevent collection of 
debts. 

4. Colonial non-intercourse agreements. Non-inter- 
course agreements were regarded by many planters 
as a means whereby they could show their dis- 
pleasure with the British merchants and the British 
Government at the same time. They regarded the 
British merchants and merchants in southern ports 
who were operating branches for British firms as 
instigators of much of the parliamentary legislation 
that was unfavorable to planting interests. 

The Second Section will present the evidence of con- 
tinued enmity of planters and merchants during the War 
as revealed in these situations: 

1. Political alignments. 

2. American legislation confiscating property of 
Loyalist merchants. 

3. Lenient laws for the discharge of prewar debts 
owed to British merchants. 

4. Monetary and banking legislation of the southern 
states. 

5. Efforts to prevent the American delegates from 
agreeing to articles in the treaty of peace which per- 
tained to prewar debts and confiscated property of 
Loyalists. 

In the Third Section of this study the writer will at- 
tempt to give an account of the ways in which the 
indebted planters continued to prevent the collection of 
British debts after the signing of the peace treaty of 1783. 
Particular attention is being paid to their efforts to keep 
the government of the Confederation so weak that it 
could force neither state governments nor the people to 



Recent Studies by Faculty A.\n AnvAXCED Students 21 

perform treaty obligations. These political tactics in- 
creased sectional feeling between New England and the 
South, because New England's merchants realized that 
they could not hope to secure favorable commercial 
treaties with European countries until the Confederation 
had demonstrated its power to enforce treaty obligations 
within the several states. 

In the Fourth Section of this study consideration is to 
be given to the swing of public opinion toward a stronger 
union, its causes and results. Among the likely causes to 
be investigated are these : 

1. A growing fear among the aristocratic planters lest 
they lose their social position because of the 
turbulance and demands of the common people. 

2. The inherent weakness of the Articles of Con- 
federation. 

3. Economic depression as a cause of dissatisfaction 
with the Articles of Confederation. 

4. Increasing power of the commercial class in Ameri- 
can affairs. 

Effects of the trend toward a stronger union which will 
be considered are these: 

1. The Constitution of the United States as an instru- 
ment of a conservative commercial class and a 
planter aristocracy for the maintenance of their 
security. 

2. Hamiltonian capitalism as a replacement of British 
mercantilism by American mercantilism. 

3. Efforts of the southern planters to resist "enslave- 
ment" by this new mercantilism, which some of 
them, at least, hated no less than they had hated 
British mercantilism. 

This study is not to be regarded as a comprehensive 
account of all the motives that may have prompted 
southern planters to participate in the War of American 
Independence, but rather as an account of one neglected 
cause of their conduct on a number of occasions. 



22 Recent Studies by Faculty axd Advanced Students 

A NEW LIGHT ON SIR PHILIP SIDNEY 

Denver Ewing Baughan 

Of some dozen biographies of Sir Philip Sidney — most 
of which have appeared during the last two decades — 
none has analyzed exhaustively in the light of sixteenth- 
century records the man's attitudes toward family, 
church, practical ethics, marital relations, and the court. 
A New Light on Sir Philip Sidney, planned for publica- 
tion within the near future, attempts to set forth these 
attitudes in as many chapters. Though the conclusions 
are documented for scholarly reference, the technical 
machinery will, I believe, not prove obtrusive to those 
who care only for the essays themselves. 

Sidney's concern for family and social position was 
superinduced both by the circumstances of his birth and 
by Queen Elizabeth's favorable attitude toward the new 
nobility. The fact that his father bought his pedigree 
from a notorious Clarenceux King of Arms and manu- 
facturer of genealogies was kept a close secret until the 
present century. Yet the son's oversensitiveness on the 
point of ancestry implies that he knew more than has 
been suspected regarding his father's antiquarian in- 
terests. Moreover Sidney's quixotic defense of his uncle 
the Earl of Leicester (to whose fabulous wealth he was 
heir apparent) seems to have influenced him so pro- 
foundly as to leave its imprint on the artistic pattern of 
the revised Arcadia, one of the first English novels and 
one of the most popular books of the seventeenth century. 

Though Sidney was probably following the practices of 
his time in his acceptance of church benefices, the truth 
remains that England's most gentlemanly gentleman 
ought to have been free from at least some of the 
ecclesiastical sins that characterized the early stages of 
the so-called Reformation. The cold-blooded bargaining 
for church preferments — begun when Philip was only 
nine years old — involved him in the evils of child pre- 
bends and a despoiling of the glebe, which bolstered from 
time to time the sagging fortunes of the Sidney family, 
and in the evils of absenteeism and pluralism, which made 



Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Stimjents 23 

many a diocese the "scene of trouble, grief, and scandal." 
Even Sidney's dream of a Protestant League was tainted 
with the seeking of self-glory, and his relations with 
Catholics a shameful acceptance of sequestrations and an 
exploitation of recusants to whom he sold American lands 
and made possible his marriage with the daughter of 
Francis Walsingham, the Queen's Secretary. 

On the ethical side Sidney seems to have been a true 
child of his age. Opportunism and expediency were ex- 
pected traits. That the noble Sidney not only knew his 
Machiavelli but set forth the principles of the Florentine 
preceptor in the Arcadia as models of conduct was well 
known by such friends as Gabriel Harney and Fulke Gre- 
ville. Sidney's interest in Machiavellism, however, did 
not stop with the academic — his closest friends, the 
mighty Earl of Leicester, Francis Walsingham, Lord 
Burleigh, and Fulke Greville were all finished Machia- 
vellists, and he himself failed only comparatively as one. 

Much has been said about the romantic love-affair be- 
tween Sidney and Penelope Devereux, daughter of the 
first Earl of Essex. Since until the recent discovery of 
a seventeenth century life of Sidney the only evidence 
for the affair was the Astrophel and Stella sonnet se- 
quence, much gossamer has been spun from the stuff of 
scholarship. Fortunately this newly discovered life 
makes it fairly clear that Sidney himself confessed to 
feelings of remorse with regard to an affair with a mar- 
ried woman, who must have been the Penelope of the 
sonnets. As to the other women who came into his life, 
it is the present writer's contention that all were chosen 
for him. Such was the Elizabethan custom, and Philip 
was started early. Sir Henry Sidney apparently did all 
in his power to effect a match for his son with the influ- 
ential Lord Burleigh's daughter Anne, but, after months 
and months of negotiations, the business came to nothing. 
The hope of a match between Philip and Penelope, how- 
ever, seems to have been first conceived by the dying Earl 
of Essex in Ireland. Sir Henry must have had little or 
no interest in the match because the Earl's fortunes had 
been dissipated. At any rate the marriage of Philip's 



24 Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 

uncle the Earl of Leicester and Essex's widow undoubt- 
edly brought the two young people together, but after 
Penelope's marriage to the Earl of Oxford a match with 
Philip was out of the question. Sidney's friendship with 
Hubert Languet made possible a proposed marriage with 
the sister of the Prince of Orange, but the Queen's veto 
was strong against alliances of such nature. Whether 
she spoiled Sidney's prospects here is not known, but 
again negotiations miscarried. When Philip's chances 
grew slim and Secretary Walsingham's daughter (her- 
self not for all markets) was apparently the only possi- 
bility left, a marriage was contracted, which, if it failed 
to bring consummate happiness, at least brought power- 
ful political connections. It will therefore be seen that, 
save for the liaison with Penelope, there was likely little 
or no love-life for Sidney because both his social level and 
his personal ambition dictated a marriage cle convenances 
It is as a courtier of the Queen that Sir Philip Sidney's 
name will probably be longest remembered. Since the 
most famous of courtiers are usually failures, Sidney's 
ambiguous success in this department can hardly be dis- 
allowed. His thwarted hopes of such preferment at the 
Queen's hands as would have graduated him from cour- 
tier to power-politician are of a piece with his quixotic 
death. Little wonder that in his imagination he beat a 
retreat to an Arcadian kingdom somewhere east of the 
moon and west of the sun. There his courtly perfection, 
which was undoubtedly inspired by Castiglione's II 
Cortegiano, could luxuriate in an unclocked eternity, but 
at the court of the Queen his was a frustrate spirit, whose 
apotheosization not even the coldest and cruelest facts on 
record could prevent. Hence, as there will always be an 
England, so there will always be a Sir Philip Sidney. 



This part of the proposed book was published in somewhat modi- 
fied form as "Sir Philip Sidney and the Matchmakers," Modern 
Language Review, XXXIII (October 1938), 506-19, plus a note 
"The Question of Sidney's Love for His Wife," Notes and Queries, 
CLXXVII (Nov. 25, 1939). 383-5. 



Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 25 

SONGS THAT GIVE CONTRAST TO THE SONG 
RECITAL 

Denton Rossell 

Many factors contribute to the success of a song 
recital. We quite generally recognize that the successful 
concert singer must have a pleasing and expressive voice, 
magnetic personality, musicianship, a vivid imagination 
and interpretive ability, "style" in his singing, and at- 
tractive bearing upon the stage. We too often fail to 
realize that careful planning of the program is one of the 
most important elements contributing to the success of 
the concert. 

The singer has but one voice. By the standards of 
artistic taste and custom, he is limited in bodily move- 
ments and the creation of .physical effects. During a full 
evening of songs an audience may become disinterested 
in the limited variations of tone which one voice may 
produce and become satiated with even the voice of 
luscious quality. The concert singer, who is required to 
stand comparatively motionless on a bare stage and 
deliver songs for an hour and one-half, must use every 
possible means of saving his audience from boredom. 

Contrast and variety are of great value in the preven- 
tion and relief of ennui in the concert hall just as they 
are in the daily routine of our lives. On the musical 
program they may be obtained by change of tempo, 
change of style of composition, variation in the style of 
technique, change of mood. 

Shakespeare gained effective contrast in serious dramas 
by the introduction of the "grave-diggers' scene" in 
"Hamlet" and the "porter's scene" in "Macbeth." Those 
who have seen these plays in the theatre must surely 
recall how the cleverly introduced scenes relieve the 
tightened emotions of the audience and, by the contrast 
which they offer, give potency to the tragic scenes which 
follow. Beethoven turned to the levity of the scherzo 
movement to obtain relief and contrast within his great 
symphonies. Songs of jocularity may similarly provide 
for us a few necessary spots of relief on the song recital. 



26 Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 

In building a vocal program many things must be con- 
sidered. The chosen songs may, by their grouping, ex- 
press a great deal of originality; however, in general, a 
kind of formula should be followed. For instance, let us 
assume that the program will follow the conventional 
chronological pattern. We may choose to introduce our 
program with a group of songs by Handel followed by 
groups of German lieder, French art songs, Russian songs, 
and contemporary American songs. Although this type 
of program is perhaps too frequently used, it is satis- 
factory in that the variety of composers and styles repre- 
sented naturally give broad heterogeneity. However, 
these contrasts of language, and composers, and style, do 
not give us assurance that our program shall have satis- 
factory variety. We must look within each song group to 
see that the songs offer change of tempo and change of 
mood. As an example, let us assume that we open our 
German group with Schubert's "Der Wandered an den 
Mond." Because that song is quiet, lyric and moderately 
slow, we could obtain refreshing change in mood and 
tempo by using the same composer's exalted love song 
"Ungeduld" for the second song. To offer contrast to the 
fast moving "Ungeduld" we could turn for our third song 
to that delicate song miniature "Stille Sicherheit" by 
Franz. In keeping with the chronology of our program 
and once more providing antithesis we could end the 
group with Wolf's "Der Rattenfanger" which is a humor- 
ous characterization with speedy tempo. 

In following the above plan of program building, we 
find that there is an abundance of appealing slow songs 
of lyric, tragic, or noble spirit. They are the songs which 
perhaps come to our minds as we plan our program, and 
they are the melodies around which our song groups are 
formed. To provide contrast for these eloquent songs we 
must turn to the song of fast moving tempo or humorous 
text, and we find that worthy songs in that order are not 
so plentiful. It is the purpose of this study to draw from 
the broad field of song literature a list of concert songs of 
these last mentioned types. The two types may be classl- 



Recent Studies ijy Faculty and Adva>'ced Students 27 

fied broadly as songs of humor and songs characterized by 
rhythm, accent, and the joy of Hving. 

The first type of song, with words humorous enough 
to cause a smile or laughter, can be illustrated by 
Moussorgsky's "Song of the Flea," "Hobby-Horseman," 
or "Child's Prayer"; Ravel's "Nicolette" ; Brahms' 
"Vergebliches Standchen"; Schumann's "Du Soldaten- 
braut"; Haydn's "Eine Sehr Gewohnliche Geschichte"; 
Jacques Wolfe's "Sailormen." 

The second type which is of faster than moderate tempo 
and which is rhythmical and filled with the joy of living 
is illustrated by such familiar songs as Schubert's 'Auf 
dem Wasser zu Singen"; Brahms' "Der Schmied" and 
"0 Liebliche Wangen"; Schumann's "Fruhlingsnacht" ; 
and Rossini's "Tarantella." 



[Mr. Rossell has compiled a list of 230 songs which he classifies 
In the above categories. He expects to increase the list by a like 
number of similar songs and hopes that such a list will be of value 
to professional and amateur singers, song coaches, teachers of sing- 
ing, and accompanists who may be called upon to plan vocal pro- 
grams.] 

PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADES 

Howard J. McGinnis 

The purpose of this study, still under way, is to dis- 
cover the probable prognostic value of high school grades 
in determining what a high school graduate is likely to 
do in college work: (a) to see whether the grades made 
in high school are indicative of the grades the student 
will make in college; (b) to discover whether other 
probable factors than intelligence enter into the scholar- 
ship record made by a student. 

Sixty-one high school transcripts of freshmen entering 
in the fall of 1939, carrying a majority of grades in the 
70's, were selected for the experimental group. Sixty-one 
transcripts of freshmen entering at the same time, who 
had made high grades in high school, that is around 90 
or better, were selected for the control group. These 
transcripts were selected by inspection only. No pre- 
determined standard of measurement was applied in their 



28 Recext Studies by Faculty axd Advaxced Students 

selection. The purpose of making the selection in this 
manner was to see whether one could distinguish any real 
difference in two groups of students by mere observation 
of their grades. 

It was the intention to follow the record of these 
students quarter by quarter and year by year until June, 
1943, when in the normal course of events they should 
complete the requirements for the Bachelor's degree. The 
study has a little less than a year yet to run. Several 
observations could be made on the basis of data gathered 
thus far; however it does not seem wise to draw con- 
clusions at this time, but in the table below will be found 

SUMMARY OF THE RECORD 

OF 

121 Students Covering Three Years of College Work 









1st Yr. 


2nd Yr. 


3rd Yr. 


J^tn Yr. 


1. 


No. Enrolled 


H 

L 


61 
61 


51 
33 


47 
25 


40 
20 


2. 


Aggregate Quarters 


H 
L 


181 
15.5 


153 
97 


140 
75 


126? 
66? 


3. 


No. with Grades Above 
Average 


H 
L 


61 

7 


49 

8 


43 

8 


1 
1 


4. 


No. with Grades Below 
Average 


H 

L 



53 


2 
25 


4 
17 


1 


5. 


Aggregate Qtr. Hours 
Passed 


H 
L 


2870 
2380 


2474 
1342 


2125 
1095 


•? 


6. 


Average No. Qtr. Hours 
Earned a Quarter 


H 
L 


15.3 
15.3 


16.2 
13.9 


15.18 
14.6 


9 


7. 


Aggregate Quality Points 
Earned 


H 

L 


5472 
1152 


4546 
1091 


3447 
910 


7 


8. 


Average Quality Points 
Earned a Quarter 


H 
L 


30.2 

7.4 


20.6 
11.3 


24.6 

12.1 


7 


>9. 


Total No. Failures a 
Year 


H 
L 


4 
125 


1 
43 


12 
36 


7 



Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 29 

a summary of data accumulated during the three years 
during which the study has been carried on. The ex- 
perimental group is designated by the letter "L", meaning 
those with low grades in high school studies. The control 
group is designated by the letter "H", meaning those with 
high grades in high school studies. 

It is observed in the tabulation above that the records 
made in college by the two groups of students are very 
dissimilar. The reason, or reasons, for that dissimilarity 
may be a matter of interpretation unless deeper reasons 
are to be sought through further studies. 

For example, only twenty of the low group enrolled for 
the fourth year of college work ; forty of the high group 
enrolled. During the third year the low group attended 
about half as many aggregate quarters as the high group ; 
earned on the average fewer quarter hours of credit; 
earned a little more than one-fourth as many aggregate 
quahty points; and made twice as many failures as the 
control group. 

The record does not show why twenty-one of the high 
group and forty-one of the low group dropped out of 
college before the beginning of the fourth year, but it is 
known that some did so because of financial difficulties, 
some married, and three were graduated. 

One member of the experimental group and two mem- 
bers of the control group completed the requirements for 
graduation and were graduated at the end of three years. 
This was done by attending summer sessions. 

A STUDY OF STUDtNT ATTENDANCE AND 
GRADUATION 

Howard J. McGinnis 

This study traces the quarterly and yearly attendance 
record, grades, and graduation of the freshmen who en- 
tered East Carolina Teachers College during the fall 
quarters of 1932, 1933, 1934, and 1935. The study is an 
extension of one suggested by the Committee on Coopera- 
tive Research of the North Carolina College Conference 
and presents the record made in this college by 592 stu- 



30 Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 

dents who entered as freshmen on transcripts of high 
school work. It does not include, perhaps, all of the 
freshmen who entered this college during the years indi- 
cated, for the reason that it has not been our practice to 
keep a separate itemized list of such entering freshmen. 
It does include all freshmen entering during the years 
indicated, directly from high school on official transcript, 
who were listed in the Tecoan as freshmen for those 
years. 

Some of the facts brought out by these tabulations 
which follow have considerable interest and seem to be of 
some signiiicance as they relate to the work of this college. 
For instance, of the 592 students considered, only 305 
were graduated. This is 52% of those who entered as 
freshmen. 

It is of interest, also, to note that of the 287 who were 
not graduated, 136 or 47.4% dropped out during or at the 
close of the first year of attendance; 26 or 7% dropped 
out during or at the close of the second year of atten- 
dance ; 37 or 12.9 % dropped out during or at the close of 
the third year of attendance; 19 or 6.6% dropped out 
during or at the close of the fourth year of attendance; 
18 or 6.3 % continued on into the fifth year of attendance 
without graduating, and one attended 171/2 quarters or 
nearly 7 years without graduating. 

It is noted, therefore, that those who did not graduate 
spent in attendance from less than one quarter to 171/2 
quarters. The average number of quarters attended by 
this group was 5.1. Some significance seems to attach, 
also, to the fact that while the grades for those graduat- 
ing averaged nearly 28 grade points above a grade of "3" 
(which is normally considered an average grade), the 
average grade of the 287 who did not graduate was 8 
grade points below an average of a "3". 

Seventeen of those graduating completed only the two- 
year normal curriculum. The period covered by this 
study was the transition period when we were eliminating 
the two-year curriculum. 

It is noticeable that approximately 75% of those who 
were not graduated made a grade average below "3". 



Recext Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 31 

Sixty-eight of the 592 students considered asked that 
transcripts be sent to other institutions. A considerable 
number of these were sent to hospitals or training schools 
for nurses. Most of these transcripts were requested by 
students who had a low scholastic average. There is a 
probability that several of those requesting transcripts 
did not actually attend other institutions. 

ANALYSIS OF THE RECORD BY YEARS 

J932 1933 1934 1935 

1. Total number freshmen records 

considered 118 119 167 188 

2. Number eventually graduated — 

normal diploma 3 6 7 1 

A.B. degree - 54 59 81 94 

3. Number not graduated 61 54 79 93 

4. Percent of the class not grad- 

uating 51.3 45.4 47.3 48.9 

5. Percent of class graduating 48.7 54.6 52.7 51.1 

6. Average number of quarters 

for non-graduates 4.7 5.5 4.7 5.5 

7. Number who earned no credit 6 3 2 

8. Average no. grade points below 

"3" for non-grads. 6.6 9.6 9.0 7.7 

9. Average grade points above "3" 

for graduates 29 25 27 28.7 

10. Range of grade points earned 

by graduates — 1 to +80 — 5 to +111 av. to — 5 to 

+86 +98 

11. No. of non-grads. with grades 

above "3" - - 13 12 15 23 

12. No. of non-grads. with grades 

below "3" 40 40 61 70 

13. Range of quarters for non- 

graduates 1 to 12.5 ltol5 1 to 15 ItolS 

14. No. of non-grads. given tran- 

scripts to other colleges or 

to hospitals 17 15 20 16 

15. No. who attended 12 or more 

quarters and were not grad- 
uated 13 5 6 5 

16. Of the 592 freshmen records checked covering the entering 

classes for the four years Indicated, 305 or 52% were gradu^ 
ated and 287 or 48% were not graduated. ( 



32 Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 

A further review of the record of each freshman class 
may be made as follows: 

CLASS OF 1932 

Fifty-four graduated with the A.B. degree ; 3 with the 
two-year normal diploma; 61 did not graduate. 

Of the 61 who did not gi-aduate, only 13 made better 
than average grades while in college. One made exactly 
average, and 6 did not stay long enough to earn any 
college credit. The 57 who graduated earned a total of 
1,688 grade points above an average grade of "3". The 
61 who did not graduate lacked 395 grade points of a 
grade average of "3". 



CLASS OF 1933 

Fifty-nine graduated with the A.B. degree; 6 with the 
two-year normal diploma; 54 did not graduate. 

Those who did graduate had total grade points of 1,638 
above the average of "3". Of the 57 who did not graduate, 
two had grades exactly average; 12 had grades above 
average; the other 40 lacked 495 grade points of having 
a grade average of a "3". The total grade points for the 
group as a whole was 308 points below an average of 



CLASS OF 1934 

Eighty-one graduated with the A.B. degree ; 7 with the 
two-year normal diploma ; 79 did not graduate. 

Those graduating made grades 2,392 points above an 
average of a "3". Of those who did not graduate, 3 did 
not earn any college credit ; 15 made better than average 
grades and earned a total of 154 grade points above an 
average of "3". The other 61 made a total of 673 points 
below an average of "3". 

CLASS OF 1935 

Ninety-four graduated with the A.B. degree; 1 with 
the two-year normal diploma ; 93 did not graduate. 

The 95 who graduated had a total of 2,727 grade points 
above an average of a "3". Of the 93 who did not 



Recext Studies by Faculty and Advanced Stipents 33 

graduate, 23 made better than average grades for a total 
of 200 grade points above a "3" average. The others of 
this group made a total of 913 points under an average 
grade of "3", or a total of 713 points under an average 
grade of "3" for the group as a whole. 

This study indicates that a high percentage of students 
who entered this college during the years covered (1) did 
not attain a satisfactory standard of college work, (2) 
left college before the end of the second year, and (3) 
that nearly 5% of those who attended the college four 
years or more were not then graduated. 



STUDIES BY STUDENTS 

The first article in this group is by a senior who assists 
in the Registrar's office, and the other articles are reports 
on theses presented by three of the candidates for the 
M. A. in June and August 1942. These reports are 
written by the faculty members who guided the students 
in the preparation of the theses. 

A STUDY OF TRANSCRIPTS OF HIGH SCHOOL 

RECORDS SUBMITTED TO EAST CAROLINA 

TEACHERS COLLEGE 

TOMMIE Lou CORBETT, '42 

This study includes mainly transcripts submitted for 
admission to East Carolina Teachers College during the 
college year 1941-42, but since a small number of tran- 
scripts of the previous two years were in the same file, 
they were included. It is believed that data on transcripts 
of the previous two years are typical of the data found 
on the current transcripts. Only data given on the tran- 
script form provided by this college were used. 

One of the objects of the study was to determine 
whether high school officers who filled out the transcripts 
were giving the personal data called for on the transcript. 
Another was to determine the average number of high 
school units submitted for admission, and still another to 
observe the spread of grades, the average grade, and any 
tendencies in high school grading. 

Three hundred and fifty different transcripts were used 
in making the tabulation. This is approximately the 
number of freshmen who enter East Carolina Teachers 
College each fall. In three hundred and eighteen in- 
stances or ninety-one percent of the cases, the students 
were recommended for college admission. In only one 
instance was an emphatic "no" given, and in five instances 
some expression of doubt about the recommendation was 
indicated. 



Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 35 

The "grade average" on the 350 transcripts was 87 7^- 
Forty-three were in the first quintile, 86 in the second, 
151 in the third, 43 in the fourth, and 27 in the fifth. 

The average number of units carried on these tran- 
scripts was 17.1. While a large majority of the tran- 
scripts carried sixteen units, which is the minimum 
carried, one carried 23 units and several carried from 17 
to 20 units. 

Among the personal data requested was one item asking 
that any honors earned or awarded the student in high 
school be indicated. Such honors were indicated in 179 
instances or 51 7c of the cases. 

Space was left, also, on the transcript in which remarks 
about the candidate were invited. In 194 instances or 
55% of the transcripts remarks were made. They were 
designed to aid the college in understanding the candidate 
and in being of greater service to him. Generally the 
comments were complimentary. 

Information about the formal schooling of the father 
and of the mother and the general intelligence of the 
candidate was asked in other items of the tabulation, 
which appears below. 

1. Total number of transcripts studied — 350 

2. Total number recommending college admission — 318 (91%) 

3. Average grades carried on transcripts — 87% 

4. Average number high school units carried on transcripts — 

17.1 

5. Formal schooling of father indicated on 322 transcripts 

a. 128 or 39% attended only elementary school 

b. 134 or 42% ended formal study in high school 

c. 60 or 18% attended college 

6. Formal schooling of the mother indicated on 319 transcripts 

a. 72 or 22% ended formal study in elementary school 

b. 143 or 45% ended formal study in high school 

c. 104 or 32% attended college 

7. The general intelligence of the candidates was indicated 
on 312 transcripts. It is suspected that in many cases 
this was a subjective evaluation, but in others it is quite 
certain the measure was made by some sort of intelligence 
test. 

a. Number rated "high Intelligence" — 51 or 16% 



36 Recext Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 

b. Number rated "above average intelligence" — 135 or 43% 

c. Number rated "average intelligence" — 120 or 39% 

d. Number rated "low^ intelligence" — 4 or a little more 

than 1% 

8. Number candidates securing high school honors — 179 or 

51% 

9. Number of instances of transcripts carrying remarks about 

candidates — 194 or 55% 

One may wonder about the effect of the parents/ formal 
schooling on the educational success of the children. The 
numbers involved here are inadequate to establish any 
facts. They may, perhaps, indicate a trend. The formal 
schooling of the parents is indicated below for the 57 
students whose high school grades averaged more than 
90% and for the 52 students whose high school grades 
averaged below 85% : 

Fathers' Mothers' 

Schooling Schooling 

ended in the ended in the 

Elem. H.S. Col. Elem. H.8. Col. 
57 Students with Average 

Grades above 90% 16 27 14 10 25 22 

52 Students with Average 

Grades below 85% 24 19 9 12 21 19 

Totals 40 46 23 22 46 41 

This tabulation involving 109 students indicates that 
the student whose parents had advanced schooling is a 
bit more likely to make high grades in high school than 
the students whose parents did not go so far in our 
educational system. 

This study lends strength to the belief that a brief 
transcript form when carefully constructed, may carry 
reasonably adequate information about the student to en- 
able college officers to classify him correctly and counsel 
with him intelligently. 

It shows that (a) High school officers fill out transcripts 
for their students with considerable care, (b) Many high 
school students earn more than the minimum number of 
units required for graduation, (c) The range of grades in 
percentage was from 73 to 97 inclusive; the grades fol- 
lowed the pattern of the normal curve of distribution 
with only a minor distortion toward the higher scores. 



Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 37 

THE EFFORTS OF NORTH CAROLINA TO OBTAIN 

AMENDMENTS TO THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION 

FROM AUGUST, 1787, TO JUNE, 1790 

Annie Andrews Sellers 

Reported by R. L. Hilldrup 

This thesis consists of an account of the efforts of 
North CaroHna to add amendments to the federal consti- 
tution; an analysis of the influences and motives which 
caused the demand for amendments; and suggestions to 
teachers who may be called upon to teach this vitally im- 
portant phase of American history. 

The first chapter is entitled "The Preliminaries of the 
Hillsboro Convention." The political, social, and economic 
conditions which caused the convention to defeat ratifi- 
cation of the federal constitution are discussed in it. 

The second chapter deals with the drafting and adop- 
tion of forty-six amendments by the Hillsboro convention. 
The convention decided that North Carolina should stay 
out of the federal union until these amendments were 
added to the constitution. One of them provided that no 
commercial treaty should be ratified without the con- 
currence of two-thirds of the whole number of the mem- 
bers of the United States Senate. Another one stated 
that no law regulating commerce should be passed with- 
out the consent of two-thirds of the members present in 
both houses. The convention decided that these amend- 
ments would safeguard the agricultural interests of the 
southern states from injury by the mercantile class of 
New York and New England. Other proposed amend- 
ments reveal a jealous desire of the state to retain control 
of her militia as a check against the power of the standing 
army of the United States. The convention also wished 
to insert an amendment which would have prohibited any 
person from being president of the United States for more 
than eight years in any period of fifteen. Like many of 
their compatriots in other states, delegates of the Hills- 
boro convention showed a wholesome fear of executive 
tyranny. 



38 REt'ENT Studies by Faculty and Advaxcko Students 

The third chapter is entitled "The Aftermath of the 
Hillsboro Convention." It is an account of the reaction 
of the state to the decision of the convention, and for the 
growing demand for ratification without amendments. 
The causes of the change in the public's attitude are 
explained. 

The heading of the fourth chapter is "Final Ratifica- 
tion." The influence of the course of North Carolina upon 
the adoption of the first ten amendments of the consti- 
tution is analyzed and evaluated. 

The final chapter consists of "Suggestions for Teaching 
the Material in This Thesis." Plans are oflfered for 
vitalizing the study of government by beginning with 
local things that are within the experience-range of the 
average pupil of the public schools of North Carolina. 
One table furnishes, by counties, the names of delegates 
to the Hillsboro convention; the number of slaves each 
owned, if any ; and how he voted on ratification. Another 
table gives information on the division of the delegates in 
the second convention. Maps show the geographical 
alignment on ratification. 

In the preparation of this thesis Mrs. Sellers consulted 
a number of manuscripts in the archives of the North 
Carolina Historical Commission, the usual printed docu- 
mentary sources, and nine different newspapers of the 
period from 1787 to 1790. She also used private con- 
temporary writings by important leaders in the formation 
of the new federal government and a number of secondary 
works. She compiled a reading list she believed would be 
helpful to teachers who are explaining the formation of 
the constitution of the United States, and another reading 
list suitable for pupils of the public schools of North 
Carolina. 

BEHIND RED VELVET 

Clifton J. Britton 

Reported by Lucile Turner 

The subtitle of this thesis, "A Handbook of Dramatics 
for Teachers of High School English," indicates its pur- 



Recent Studies by Faculty axd Advaxced Students 39 

pose. Mr. Britton produced plays here for six years — 
four years as an undergraduate and two years as a fellow 
in English; and during those years he was asked many 
questions by alumni who, in addition to teaching the 
subjects in which they had majored, were expected to 
coach dramatics. The questions convinced the young 
director that there was real need for a handbook for 
teachers who are interested in dramatics and glad to work 
with it but who have had only limited experience on the 
stage and few or no courses in play production. 

The introduction gives the writer's estimate of educa- 
tional dramatics in high school, and the chapters are on 
the selection of plays, the prompt book, directing, scenery, 
lighting, make-up, and sound effects. Specimen sheets of 
his own prompt books, photographs, and charts supple- 
ment the text. These chapters and the appendixes show 
the result of preserving, analyzing, and using the records 
of years of work as a student-producter just as truly as 
they show thorough study of the writings of profes- 
sionals. 

When examining the appendixes, one member of the 
faculty declared that they constitute a second thesis. 
Certainly they contain much illustrative and bibliograph- 
ical material — series of pictures showing make-up and 
historic costumes, a glossary of stage terms, specimen 
programs of plays directed here by Mr. Britton, names 
and addresses of dealers in equipment for dramatics, 
bibliography not only of material used but of other 
sources, and classified lists of plays recommended. 

Mr. Britton acknowledges his indebtedness to fellow 
students — Miss Mary T. Bailey and Messrs. Fenly Spear, 
Matt Phillips, and William Harris — for help with the 
illustrative material. 

All in all, this thesis seems to promise to teacher- 
directors in high schools help in the solution of many of 
their problems. 



40 Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 

NORTH CAROLINA WRITERS OF LITERARY PROSE 

from 1900 to 1940: biographies and bibliographies 

Katherine Wilkins Hinson 

Reported by Lucile Tubner 

This biographical dictionary, with bibliographies, 
brings together information, hitherto widely scattered, 
about thirty-four North Carolina authors who were writ- 
ing between 1900 and 1940; who have published two or 
more books which appeal to general adult readers, and 
who have been recognized by one or more of the fourteen 
books used in checking, among them Boynton's America 
in Current Fiction, Mantle's Contemporary American 
Playwrights, Millet's Co7itemporary American Litera- 
ture, O'Neill's History of American Biography, and Who's 
Who among Am^erican Authors. In determining who 
should be considered North Carolinians, Miss Hinson de- 
cided that an author "must have been born in the State, 
or, if elsewhere, he must have lived and written in North 
Carolina for at least five years or have a North Carolina 
address in Who's Who in America or in Who's Who 
among American Authors." 

The thesis begins with a survey of North Carolina prose 
during the first forty years of the century and closes with 
a list of authors classified according to the types of prose : 
novelists; short story writers; dramatists; biographers; 
essayists; and writers of social studies, nature studies, 
travel, and history. Numerically novelists are ahead ; 
short story writers, biographers, and dramatists tie for 
the second place. North Carolina writers have been 
versatile. Struthers Burt has written in six types and 
Thomas Wolfe and Gerald Johnson in four; a number 
have excelled in two. Several have gained national repu- 
tation. Paul Green and Hatcher Hughes have won the 
Pulitzer Prize ; Wilbur Daniel Steele has won the 0. Henry 
Memorial Award four times ; Paul Green, Thomas Wolfe, 
and Jonathan Daniels have been awarded Guggenheim 
Fellowships. A few — chief among them Thomas Wolfe 



Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 41 

and Paul Green — have been the subjects of much critical 
writing. 

In the body of the thesis, each biographical sketch is 
followed by lists of the author's books, of the studies and 
sketches about him in books and in periodicals, and of the 
portraits in periodicals. Here it should be noted that 
although "those authors who have written only such 
works as appeal to specialists are not included, the factual 
books of those who are both creative writers and scholars 
are included." 

Miss Hinson, in the preparation of her thesis, particu- 
larly of the bibliographies, obviously the most valuable 
parts of such a study, used not only the materials here 
but those made available by the Extension Department 
of the Library of the University of North Carolina and 
the North Carolina Historical Commission, and informa- 
tion furnished by several of the authors. 

The Preface includes the writer's statement of her 
belief that a handbook of this kind is needed by teachers 
of senior high school English in the State and that it 
might prove helpful for women's literary clubs and for 
English clubs in colleges. 



TITLES OF THESES AND DISSERTATIONS 

Written by 
Members of the Faculty 

The following list gives some idea of the range of sub- 
jects in which teachers have made investigations. A 
number took the master's degree where these were not 
required; therefore the list does not include the entire 
faculty. Titles taken at random suggest the variety and 
value of these studies: Development of the Federal Con- 
trol Program 07i the Mississippi River, Parasites of 
Certain North Carolina Salientia, The Professional Treat- 
ment of Differential Equations, and Festus Ex Paulus: 
Restoration of Parts of a Charred Copy Partially De- 
stroyed in the Alexandrine Library. 
Adams, Carl L. — M.A., Kentucky's Ability to Finance 
Public Education. Ph.D., A Study in Variability and 
Grade Progress. 
Austin, Marguerite — M.A., Alfred de Musset as a Critic 

of Romanticism. 
Baughan, Denver Ewing — M.A., The Arming of the Com- 
batants in Chaucer's "Knight's Tale." Ph.D., Sir 
Philip Sidney and the Two Versions of the Arcadia. 
Blaine, Eva Lee — M.A., Trends in Education as Shown 
by Topics Discussed in National Education Associa- 
tion. 
Brandt, B. B. — M.A., Salientia of Eastern North Caro- 
lina. Ph.D., Parasites of Certain North Carolina 
Salientia. 
Brooks, Frederick P. — Ph.D., Nitration of 2-Amino-para- 

cymene. 
Browne, W. A. — M.A., History and Development of the 
Joplin Mining Industry. Ph.D., The Llano Estacado; 
A Geographic Interpretation. 
Browning, Alma — M.A., A Study of Standard Reading 

Tests. 
Browning, E. R. — M.A., A Cumulative Record System 
for West Virginia High Schools. Ph.D., Legal Aid 



Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 43 

Work in the United States, Its Implications to the Busi- 
ness Education Curriculum. 

Biddle, Mrs. Jessica T.— M.A., The Study of Vitamin A 
Content of Diets of College Women as Measured by 
Readings on the Hecht Adaptometer. 

Charlton, Lucile — M.A., Questions on Progressive Edu- 
cation Practices in Elementary Schools — Progressive 
Education— Years 1924-1929. 

Dempsey, Audrey V. — M.A., A Comparative Study of 
Training Methods Used by Commerce Teachers in 
Training Students for Commercial Contests. 

DeLoach, W. S. M.A., Effect of Certain Foods on the 

pH of the Urine. Ph.D., The Preparation and Proper- 
ties of N-Derivatives of l-Amino-2-Methyl-6-Phenyl- 
Hexatriene-1,3,5. 

Ellis, Lena C. — M.A., Mrs. Alice Hegan Rice. 

Flanagan, Beecher — M.A., Arable Land in the United 
States Available for Settlement. Ph.D., A History of 
State Banking in North Carolina to 1866. 

Frank, A. D. — M.A., History of Labor Legislation in 
Tennessee. Ph.D., Development of the Federal Flood 
Control Program on the Mississippi River. 

Galphin, Louise — M.A., A Suggested Revision of the Bus- 
well-John Diagnostic Chart for Individual Difficulties 
in Multiplication. 

Greene, Mary H. — M.A., The Learned William Camden. 

Grigsby, Lois — M.A., The Influences of the Changing 
Science and Philosophy of the Nineteenth Century on 
George Eliot. 

Hankner, 0. A. — M.A., A Comparative Study of Phys- 
ically Normal and Physically Handicapped Men Stu- 
dents. 

Henderson, E. L. — Ph.D., Student Teaching in State 
Teachers Colleges. 

Hooper, Emma L. — M.A., Symbolism in the Modern Eng- 
lish Novel. 

Haynes, Hubert C. — M.A., History of Educational Legis- 
lation in Georgia. Ph.D., Relation of Teacher Intelli- 
gence, Experience, and Type of School to Type of 
Questions. 



44 Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 

Hollar, E. Cleveland — M.A., A Study of the Educational 
Writings of John Locke. 

Holtzclaw, Katharine — M.A., Attitudes Towards Home 
Economics in the Women's Liberal Arts Colleges. 

Hilldrup, R. L. — M.A., Governmental Regulation of Cor- 
porations vi^ith Emphasis on Regulation in Virginia. 
Ph.D., The Virginia Convention of 1776. 

Jenkins, Mamie E. — M.M., "Paulus Ex Festus" : Restora- 
tion of parts of the charred copy partially destroyed 
in the Alexandrine fire. 

McGinnis, Howard J. — M.A., A Brief History of Teacher 
Training in West Virginia. Ph.D., The Teachers Col- 
lege President. 

McHenry, William H. — M.A., An Industrial Arts Educa- 
tion Curriculum for East Carolina Teachers College. 

Meadows, Leon R. — Ph.D., A Study of the Teaching of 
English Composition in the Teachers Colleges of the 
United States. 

Picklesimer, P. W. — M.A., Navigation on the Ohio River. 
Ph.D., The New Bright Tobacco Belt of North Caro- 
lina : A Study in Human Geography. 

Posey, M. N. — M.A., A Critical Analysis of the Litera- 
ture of Psychological Types. Ph.D., Whitman's Debt 
to the Bible with Special Reference to the Origins of 
His Rhythm. 

ReBarker, Herbert R. — M.A., The Relationship Between 
Intelligence and Achievement. Ph.D., The Simple 
Integral Processes of Arithmetic. 

Reynolds, Charles W. — M.A., The Professional Treat- 
ment of Differential Equations. Ph.D., The Develop- 
ment of Generalized Science in State Teachers Colleges. 

Snider, Felix Eugene — M.A., Literary Awards and 
Prizes. 

Slay, Ronald J. — Ph.D., The Teaching of Agriculture in 
Mississippi. 

Turner, Lucile — M.A., The Socialized Recitation in High 
School Literature. Ph.D., A Study of the Content of 
the Sewanee Review, with Historical Introduction. 



Recent Studies by Faculty and Advanced Students 46 

Walker, Elizabeth S. — M.A., History of North Carolina 

Railroads from 1825 to 1860. 
Watters, Ethel R.— M.A., Methods Used by Student 

Teachers in Arousing and Maintaining Interest.